Analyzing Technology in the Sialkot Soccer Ball Industry


The Sialkot soccer ball cluster is made up of a large number of manufactures who export approximately 60 million hand-stitched soccer balls each year, accounting for about 70 percent of global production. But over the last few years, the amount of soccer balls produced in Sialkot has declined. This project aimed to better understand the technologies within the industry and determine the characteristics of the firms that are able to identify and implement new technologies.
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Principal Investigators

Azam Chaudhry, Lahore School of Economics
Shamyla Chaudry, Lahore School of Economics
David Atkin, Yale University
Amit K. Khandelwal, Columbia University
 Eric Verhoogen, Columbia University

Partners and Funders

Project Period



Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan 

Center for Development Economics and Policy (CDEP) Research Project Video


The incentive payment, has had a statistically significant effect on adoption. The findings suggest that the misalignment of incentives is indeed an important reason for non-adoption of the cost-reducing technology.